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BLM LIBRARY 




EOEXPLORERS INTERNATIONAL, INC . 

5701 EAST EVANS AVENUE. DENVER. COLORADO 80222. USA. TEL. 303-759-2746 



DR. JAN KRASON 

President 



GEOLOGY, ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES 
ASSESSMENT OF THE MANZANO AREA, 

NEW MEXICO 



BY 

JAN KRASON, A. WODZICKI AND SUSAN K. CRUVER 

GEOEXPLORERS INTERNATIONAL, INC. 

5701 East Evans Avenue 
Denver, Colorado 80222 
Telephone 303-759-2746 



Prepared for: 
United States Department of the Interior 
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

December 31, 1982 



ID S^ 1 ' 

BLM Library 
D-553A, Building 50 
Denver Federal Center 
P.O. Box £5047 
TABLE OF CONTENTS Denver, CO a0£35-0047 

Summary 1 

Introduction 2 

Purpose and methodology 2 

Geological, Energy and Mineral (GEM) Resources Area (GRA) 2 

Location and access 3 

Physiography 5 

Geology 6 

Lithostratigraphy-rock units 6 

Precambrian 14 

Pennsylvanian 15 

Permian 16 

Abo Formation 16 

Yeso Formation 17 

Triassic 17 

Jurassic and Cretaceous 18 

Tertiary 18 

Santa Fe Formation 19 

Basaltic flows 19 

Quaternary 19 

Structural geology 21 

Paleontology 22 

Geologic history and paleogeographic development 23 

Energy and mineral resources 25 

Known mineral deposits, mines, oil wells, or 

prospects with recorded production 26 

Known mineral prospects, occurrences, oil 

and gas wells with no recorded production 29 

Mining claims, leases and material sites 35 

Mineral deposit types 35 

Precambrian metamorphic rocks 35 

Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments 37 

Late Tertiary valley-fill sediments 39 

Mineral economics 40 

The geology, energy and mineral resources of the 

Manzano Wilderness Study Area 40 

Classification scheme 40 

Level of confidence scheme 41 

Manzano Wilderness Study Area (010-092) 41 

Physiography 41 

Geology 42 

Mineral deposits 42 

Land classification for GEM resources potential 43 

Conclusions and recommendations 43 

References 44 



- ii - 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure 1: Tectonic map of the Rio Grande rift system in New Mexico and 
location of the Manzano GRA. 

Figure 2: West-east structure section across Albuquerque basin. 

Figure 3: Geologic, energy and mineral resources map of the Manzano area, 
New Mexico. 

Figure 4: Legend for geologic, energy and mineral resources maps. 

Figure 5: Geologic environments of the Manzano area and associated potential 
mineral deposit types. 



- iii - 



GEOLOGY, ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT 
OF THE MANZANO AREA, NEW MEXICO 

by 

Jan Krason, Antoni Wodzicki and Susan K. Cruver 

SUMMARY 



The Manzano Geological Resource Area (GRA) is located at the foothills 
and along the western slope of the central part of the Manzano Mountains, in 
central New Mexico. Included in the GRA is one Wilderness Study Area (WSA) 
known as the Manzano WSA (010-092), which comprises 845 acres (3.4 sq. km). 

Geology of the Manzano GRA is complex and includes rocks ranging from 
Precambrian (1.2 to 1.65 m.y. old) through recent age. However, within the 
WSA occur only Precambrian granite (1.5 m.y. old) which is in fault contact 
with Pennsylvanian and Permian strata. There is a relatively thin, but 
widespread veneer of (recent) alluvial fans formed of granitic blocks and 
poorly sorted rock debris. 

The alluvial fans and the pediment gravel which occurs further west 
within the Rio Grande valley mask the subsurface geological structures. 
Alluvium also masks the above-mentioned Manzano fault and other faults which 
steeply dip in the Rio Grande graben. 

The geological environments, although locally favorable in the GRA for 
various mineral deposits and hydrocarbons, appear to have very low or no 
favorability within and, in close proximity to, the WSA. Therefore, there are 
no GEM resources classification maps enclosed with this report and no further 
geological work is recommended for the Manzano Wilderness Study Area. 



INTRODUCTION 

Purpose and Methodology 

The need and desirability of the "Geological, Energy and Minerals (GEM) 
Resources Assessment" in the "Wilderness Study Areas" (WSA) has been recog- 
nized for some time by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The assessment is 
now being performed by various contractors for the BLM. 

Wilderness Study Areas, widely scattered within the Sonoran Desert and 
Mexican Highlands and grouped into Region 5 by the BLM, are being studied and 
assessed by Geoexplorers International, Inc. The present report pertains to 
one WSA in central New Mexico which is located within the Manzano Geological, 
Energy and Mineral Resources Area (GRA). 

The purpose of the present study is to assess the potential for locat- 
able, leasable and salable resources within the GRA, and specifically within 
each of the WSAs . This assessment has been carried out through literature 
study of the geology, structure and economic geology of the GRA, and a con- 
sideration of the regional paleogeographic, plate tectonic and metallogenic 
setting of the GRA within the southern Cordillera. Thus, the assessment is 
not only based on data from the GRA itself, but also on metallogenic concepts 
within the regional paleogeographic and plate tectonic framework. 

Geological, Energy and Mineral (GEM) Resources Area (GRA) 

In this report "resources" are defined as mineral and/or fossil fuel 
concentrations amenable to economic development under current or reasonably 
anticipated conditions. Resources include reserves and other mineral or 
fossil fuel concentrations that may eventually become reserves but are 



- 2 - 



- 3 - 



currently either economically or technically not recoverable. Resources are 
also defined as deposits inferred to exist, but not yet discovered. Such 
resources cannot be considered as available until actually discovered. 

Considering the BLM's requirements, the GRA boundaries have been 
determined in accordance with the following criteria: 

1. The size of the GRA is approximately 690,000 acres (2,790 
km 2 ), which if shown on the map to the scale of 1:250,000 
(also required by BLM) does not exceed a sheet of paper 8.5 by 
11 inches , 

2. The GRA boundary does not cut across a Wilderness Study Area, 
and 

3. The geologic environment and mineral occurrences are also taken 
into primary consideration. 

The name of the "Manzano GRA" has been suggested and used by the authors 
of this report. The criteria for establishment of the Wilderness Study Area 
are not the subject of this report. Also, its boundary, code number and name 
has been established by the Bureau of Land Management prior to this study. 

Location and Access 

The Manzano GRA lies in central New Mexico, within the east-central 
part of the Socorro 1:250,000 scale quadrangle map (see fig. 1). The GRA's 
geographic coordinates are as follows: 

latitude 34°28'45"W - 35°00'00"N and 

longitude 106°10'50"W - 106°A2'25"W. 

The same area can be described by the townships T3N to T9N and ranges 
R3E to R7E. 



108' 

+ 



107° 



106" 



o 

Chama 



MANZANO WSA 
010-092 




I05" 

+ 



36« 



+35° 



-D^_ CROSS SECTION 
o 



-+34° 



-|-33 



I07 



106° 



FIGURE 1. TECTONIC MAP OF THE RIO GRANDE RIFT SYSTEM IN NEW 
MEXICO AND LOCATION OF THE MANZANO GRA; after V.C. Kelley 



- 5 - 

In this GRA is only one Wilderness Study Area also named "Manzano", 
with code number 010-092. The WSA includes 845 acres (3. A sq. km) which 
occupies the Wl/2 sec 31 of T6N, R4E, and the Wl/2 sec. 6 and Wl/2 sec. 7, 
T7N and R4E. The WSA has a rectangular shape which is extended in the 
north-south direction. On the east, the WSA borders the Cibola National 
Forest . 

The WSA is located in Torrance County along its western border with 
Valencia County. The Manzano WSA is about 16 miles east of Los Lunas in 
the Rio Grande valley, and is approximately 17 miles south of Albuquerque. 

Access to the WSA is possible from Los Lunas by four wheel drive vehicle 
and then walking about one mile from an unpaved road. Within and in close 
proximity to the WSA there are no roads or hiking trails. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

The Manzano GRA lies within and adjacent to the Rio Grande rift, a 
pronounced north-trending tectonic and physiographic depression. The area is 
in the Mexican Highland section of the Basin and Range Province as defined by 
Fenneman (1928). 

The GRA can be divided into three distinct physiographic terrains 
(fig. 1): the mountainous terrain running north-south in the center of the 
GRA, the high plateau of the eastern part of the GRA, and the floodplain and 
lowlands of the western half of the GRA. 

The Manzano Mountains comprise the mountainous terrain and the Chupa- 
dera Platform is the high, eastward sloping plateau in the eastern part of the 
GRA. The floodplain and lowlands are located within the Rio Grande graben. 
The Rio Grande has downcut into floodplain sediments, creating terraces. 
One occurs approximately 110 feet above the level of the river, between 
Isoleta and Los Lunas (fig. 3). 



- 6 - 



Total relief of the GRA is approximately 5100 feet, with the Manzano 
Peak the highest point at 10,098 feet. 

The Manzano WSA lies along the margin between the mountainous and 
lowland terrains in the center of the GRA. The WSA partly overlies the 
steep western slope of the Manzano Mountains and partly overlies more gently 
sloping, but still quite steep, alluvial fans formed along the faulted western 
edge of the Manzano Mountains. Relief in the WSA is about 1200 feet. 

GEOLOGY 

The regional geological setting and main structural units of central 
New Mexico are shown in figures 1 and 2. Geologic environments and energy and 
mineral resources within the Manzano GRA are shown in figure 3 with the legend 
and explanation in figure 4. 

In all these illustrations (figs. 1 through 3) it is shown that the 
Manzano GRA covers portions of the Albuquerque Basin including the Rio Grande 
graben, Joyita-Hubble bench, Manzano uplift and Chupadera platform (Kelley, 
1977). The area is in the eastern edge of the Rio Grande graben and is 
intensely faulted. 

Lithostratigraphy - Rock Units 

The Manzano GRA includes rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to 
Holocene. However, as not all stratigraphic units are equally important for 
the GEM resources assessment within the WSA, the following stratigraphic 
descriptions focus attention on those rock units which crop out in and around 
the WSA. The lithostratigraphic units cropping out within the GRA are shown 
in figure 3. Brief descriptions of the units are shown in the lithostrati- 
graphic legend (fig. 4). 



6,000 



Manzono 
uplift | 




FIGURE 2. WEST-EAST STRUCTURE SECTION ACROSS ALBUQUERQUE 
BASIN, DATUM IS MEAN SEA LEVEL; after V.C. Kelley, 1977. 



R 3E 



106*30' 



R 4E 



R 5E 



. 



R 6E 



R 7E 



T 8N 



T 7H 



T 5N 



T 4N 



30' 



7 ^ 




/«F : 




iSfc^M 





85*00 







.yi- 



/ ^f^T m ~i t" '>-^~-Hf6-RisrAtit-io Q 



sca£gg» 



;,#~pm 



if *NTfl Q^ 





8N 



%£ 



Lot 
(ft"*' 




\Wsfc k^M0^ ^mm& 



H 






r 7N 



Tqweifc 



Ranch 



EjuSse 



3E- 



4t"30' 



/gu 46 

jGti-^4 



frs 




TT5E 



r sn 



r 4n 



r 3N 



15' 



FIG. 3. GEOLOGIC, ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES MAP 

OF THE MANZANO AREA, NEW MEXICO 



Scale 
1 : 250,000 
LEGEND: see enclosed 



Figure 4. LEGEND 

FOR 
GEOLOGIC, ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES MAPS 

Scale of all maps is 1:250,000 or as otherwise indicated. 



LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY 

After Vincent C. Kelley, 1977 and C. H. Dane and G. O. Bachman, 1965 



f 



oc 

< 

< 



Qa 


Qfa 



HOLOCENE < 



V 



Qe 



Qt 



PLEISTOCENE 



< 



\ 



Qo 



ALLUVIUM - Qa: Arroyos: Qfa: Fans 



EOLIAN SAND - Blankets 



GRAVEL TERRACES 



ORTIZ PEDIMENT GRAVEL AND SURFACE - Fanglomerate 
ranging from large boulders to pebbles 



>- 
< 

QC 



PLIOCENE 



< 



MIOCENE 



Tb 



Ts 



Td 



Basaltic flows and cinders of San Felipe, Cerros del Rio, 
Wind Mesa, Lucero Mesa, Cat Mesa, Isleta and lesser 
centers 



SANTA FE FORMATION- Undivided: pinkish, light olive drab and 
white sandstone; gray and brown mudstone; arkose, 
conglomerate, and fanglomerate 



DATIL VOLCANICS - Volcanic fanglomerate and tuff 



TRIASSIC 



SANTA ROSA AND CHINLE FORMATIONS - Reddish-brown mudstone, 
sandstone, and conglomerate 



CC 

UJ 



LEONARD 



WOLFCAMP 



Py 



v 



Pa 



YESO FORMATION - Sandstone, mudstone, gypsum 



ABO FORMATION - Reddish to white sandstone, mudstone 
and gypsum 



PENNSYLVANIAN 



F 



MADERA LIMESTONE AND SANDIA FORMATION - Undivided 



r 



PRECAMBRIAN J 



p€g 



GRANITIC PLUTONS 



p€m METAMORPHIC ROCKS- Gneiss, schist, quartzite, and greenstone 



SPECIAL SYMBOLS 

OF STRUCTURAL FEATURES 

After U.S. Geological Survey 



fr- 



-y- 



Contact - Dashed where approximately 
located; short dashed where inferred; 
dotted where concealed 

Contact - Showing dip; well exposed at 
triangle 

Fault - Dashed where approximately 
located; short dashed where inferred; 
dotted where concealed 

Fault, showing dip - Ball and bar on 
downthrown side 

Normal fault - Hachured on downthrown 
side 

Fault - Showing relative horizontal 
movement 

Thrust fault - Sawteeth on upper plate 

Anticline - Showing direction of plunge; 
dashed where approximately located; 
dotted where concealed 

Asymmetric anticline - Short arrow 
indicates steeper limb 

Overturned anticline - Showing direction 
of dip of limbs 

Syncline - Showing direction of plunge; 
dashed where approximately located; 
dotted where concealed 

Asymmetric syncline Short arrow 
indicates steeper limb 

Overturned syncline - Showing direction 
of dip of limbs 

Monocline - Showing direction of plunge 
of axis 

Minor anticline Showing plunge of axis 

Minor syncline - Showing plunge of axis 



Strike and dip of beds - Ball indicates 
top of beds known from sedimen- 
tary structures 
Inclined © Horizontal 



Vertical 



Overturned 



Strike and dip of foliation 
.^° Inclined » Vertical -i_ Horizontal 

Strike and dip of cleavage 
■ ' : Inclined ■ • Vertical -j- 1 Horizontal 

Bearing and plunge of lineation 
,s + Inclined * Vertical - — - Horizontal 

Strike and dip of joints 
_* ° Inclined — ■— Vertical -^- Horizontal 

Note: planar symbols (strike and dip of beds, 
foliation or schistosity, and cleavage) may be 
combined with linear symbols to record data 
observed at same locality by superimposed 
symbols at point of observation. Coexisting 
planar symbols are shown intersecting at point 
of observation. 



SPECIAL SYMBOLS 

FOR ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES 



KNOWN DEPOSITS AND OCCURRENCES 



}-0 Oil field 


o-« 


Coal deposit 


-G Gat field 


O-c 


Coal occurrence 


-0» Oil shale 







| -Mineral orebody - as specified with symbol 
] Mineral deposit - as specified with symbol 
^-Mineral occurrence - as specified with symbol 
1° o[ - Mineral district (Fig. = Inserted map) 



EXPLORATION AND/OR MINING ACTIVITY 



MINERALS AND COAL 

*, Mineral deposit, mine or .— 

X prospect with recorded prod. FJ Vertical shaft 

x/ Prospect or mine m ln .,. nmti .•..#♦ 

A with no recorded production ^ Inclined shaft 

n, Accessible adit, or tunnel Ov Active open pit, or quarry 

>-| — Inaccessible adit, or tunnel ^ Inactive open pit, or quarry 



PETROLEUM 



# Oil well 
0- Oil and gas well 
-rt Gas well 



GROUND WATER 



O Water well of special 
importance 

O Water well of high yield 

(_) Flowing water well 



Xy Show of gas 
3 Show of oil 
' j> Show of oil and gas 
(*) Shut-In well 



w Brine 

3 Mineral water 



A Active gravel or clay (cl) pit 
^xT Inactive gravel or clay (cl) pit 
Exploration hole with data availabli 
(■jQ Exploration hole without data 
x - 7] Mining district (Fig.- Inserted map) 



O C0 2 - or He-helium- rich well 
Dry well - abandoned 



<y 



*3 Thermal water 
:"P Radioactive water 
,A Thermal point 



ENERGY RESOURCES 



O Oil 

G Gas 

Os Oil shale 

Ot Tar sands 



C Coal 

Cb Lignite (brown coal) 

Cp Peat 



U Uranium 
Th Thorium 
Gt Geothermal 



MINERAL RESOURCES 



METALS 

Al Aluminum 
Sb Antimony 
As Arsenic 
Be Beryllium 
Bl Bismuth 
Cd Cadmium 
Cr Chromium 
Cs Cesium 
Co Cobalt 



Cu Copper 

Ga Gallium 

Ge Germanium 

Au Gold 

Fe Iron 

Pb Lead 

LI Lithium 

Mn Manganese 

Hg Mercury 



Mo Molybdenum 

Nl Nickel 

Nb Niobium or Columblum 

Pt Platinum group 

RE Rare earth 

Re Rhenium 

Sc Scandium 

Ag Silver 

Te Tellurium 



Tl Thallium 

Sn Tin 

Ti Titanium 

W Tungsten 

V Vanadium 

Zn Zinc 

Zr Zirconium and 
Hf Hafnium 



NONMETALS - INDUSTRIAL MINERALS 



ab Abrasives 
al Alum 
as Asbestos 
Ba Barlte 
be Bentonite 
ca Calclte 
cl Clay 

Construction materials 



cs Crushed stone 

la Lightweight aggregates, Includ.: 

pm Pumice and volcanic cinders 

pe Perlite 

ec Expanded clay, shale, slate 

vm Vermiculite 
sg Sand and gravel 
cr Cement raw materiale 
bs Building stones 
II Lime 



dl Dlatomite 

Nonmarlne and marine 
evaporites and brine* 

pt Potash 

na Salt - mainly halite 

gy Gypsum and anhydrite 

nc Sodium carbonate or 

sulfate 

bn Boron minerals 

nf Nitrates 

Sr Strontium 

Br Bromine 

cc Calcium chloride 

mg Magnesium compounds 



fs Feldspar 

F Fluorlte (fluorspar) 

gs Gem stones 

ge Graphite 

He Helium 

kl Kaolin 

ky Kyanite and related 
minerals 

Is Limestone 

Im Lithium minerals 



mg Magnesian 
refractories 

mi Mica 

ph Phosphate 

pi Pigment and fillers 

qz Quartz crystals 

si Silica sand 

S Sulfur 

tc Talc 

ze Zeolites 

hm Humate 



SPECIAL GEOLOGICAL FEATURES 



POINT OF SPECIAL GEOLOGIC INTEREST 



m Mineral occurrence 

f Fossil locality 

v Volcanic phenomenon 

t Stratlgraphlc sequence 



s Structural, bedding, foliation, etc., 

b Brecciatlon, shear zone, etc., 

y High yield spring 

p Spring with mineral water 



u Radioactive spring 

g Thermal spring 

a Extensive rock 
alteration 

r Uthologic type locality 



FAVORABILITY POTENTIAL AND LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE FOR MINERAL RESOURCES 



FAVORABILITY: 
1A -Undefined 

1 - Not favorable - combine with either B, C, or D 

2 - Low 



Moderate 
High 



, combine with either A, B, C, or D 



LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE: 

A - Insufficient data 

B - Indirect evidence 

C - Direct evidence 

D - Abundant direct and indirect evidence 



- 14 - 



Precambrian 

Precambrian rocks are exposed in the Manzano Mountains, occur at shallow 
depth along mountain flanks and form the crystalline basement of the entire 
GRA. In accordance with the geologic map of the Albuquerque basin by Kelley 
(1977; fig. 3), there are two major groups of Precambrian rocks. In the 
southern and northern parts of the Manzano Mountains, and probably under 
most of the GRA, occur metamorphic rocks composed mainly of gneiss, schist, 
quartzite, and greenstone. The central part of the Manzano Mountains in- 
cluding the area adjacent to the WSA is composed of a granitic pluton. 

The basal unit of the metamorphic rocks consists of approximately 1900 
feet of metasediments, mostly phyllite with subordinate metaquartzite. The 
metasediments are overlain by 4500 feet of mafic metavolcanics (Ti jeras-Hell 
Canyon greenstone) with minor cherty iron formation and silicic metavolcanics. 
Overlying the greenstone are more metasediments (maximum thickness of 9500 
feet) that are mostly phyllites and metaquartzites . Locally, a rhyodacite 
crystal-rich tuff, 2000 feet in thickness and containing abundant lithic 
fragments, unconformably overlies the greenstone. The uppermost unit is 
metarhyolite with subordinate metabasaltic sills with maximum thickness of 
about 5000 feet in the Manzano Mountains (Fulp and Woodward, 1981). 

In the southern Manzano Mountains only the upper sequence of meta- 
sediments and overlying metarhyolite are exposed. The rocks are isoclinally 
folded and metamorpohosed to the lower amphibolite facies (Fulp and Woodward, 
1981). 

Granitic rocks intrude the metasediments and metavolcanics. The 
Sandia Mountain granite is reported to be approximately 1500 m.y. old by 



- 15 - 



Brookins (197A). The Ojito quartz monzonite, which occurs within and to 
the east of the WSA, and Priest Granite (in T5N, R4E) in the Manzano Moun- 
tains, intrude the supracrustal rocks (Fulp and Woodward, 1981). According 
to Condie and Budding (1979), the granitic plutons were emplaced during late 
stages of tectonic activity or they are post-tectonic. The granitic rocks 
are composed mainly of highly saussauritized sodic plagioclase. The contact 
effects of the pluton on surrounding metamorphic rocks, with exception of 
silicif ication, are insignificant (Reiche, 1949). Within the WSA the Ojito 
quartz monzonite is mostly covered by alluvial fans (Qfa). 

Pennsylvanian 

In the Manzano GRA, the Pennsylvanian Sandia and Madera Formations 
rest directly on the Precambrian crystalline basement. Both of these for- 
mations, included as one lithosratigraphic unit on the enclosed geologic map 
(fig. 3), occupy much of the entire eastern half of the GRA. The Pennsyl- 
vanian rocks crop out along the eastern slopes of the Manzano Mountains and in 
the numerous canyons of the Chapadera Platform. Pennsylvanian strata also 
occur within the Rio Grande graben, mainly in the subsurface. 

The Sandia Formation consists of interbedded black shale, dark gray 
limestone, and gray to light olive-gray and brownish sandstone. Locally, 
the sandstone is conglomeratic, especially near the base; carbonaceous streaks 
are also found locally. Total thickness of the Sandia Formation ranges from 
10 to 230 feet (Kelly, 1963; Reiche, 1949). The Sandia Formation and associ- 
ated rocks were deposited on the erosional surface of the Precambrian (Titus, 
1980). 



- 16 - 



The Madera Limestone is divided into a lower gray limestone member 
and an upper arkosic limestone member. The lower member consists of massive, 
cliff-forming beds of gray cherty limestone with minor interbedded gray 
limestone, gray and black shale, and calcareous siltstone. In contrast, 
the upper member is more than half siltstone, sandstone, and shale. It 
consists of alternating light gray cherty limestone, arkosic calcarenite, red 
or brown arkosic sandstone, and gray shale. In the Manzano Mountains, thick- 
ness of approximately 1300 feet of Madera have been measured in outcrops. The 
Madera Limestone is the best aquifer with highest water yield in the area 
(Titus, 1980). 

Permian 

Permian sediments crop out in the southeastern part of the Manzano 
GRA and in a few localities within the Rio Grande graben (fig. 3). In 
the graben, Permian strata are overlain disconf ormably by Triassic, Tertiary 
and Quaternary sediments. 

Two Permian formations, the Abo (Pa) and Yeso (Py), are present in 
the Manzano GRA (figures 3 and 4). 

Abo Formation (Pa) 

The Abo Formation consists of dark red to reddish brown shale and silt- 
stone, and dark red to pink, locally light gray, sandstone with discontinuous 
beds of arkosic sandstone, conglomerate, and pellet limestone. The sandstone 
beds are fine- to very coarse-grained, partly conglomeratic, and are mod- 
erately to well cemented. The total thickness reported by Kelley (1963) is 
700 to 900 feet. 



- 17 - 



The Abo Formation crops out in various locations of the southeastern 
part of the Manzano GRA, where it appears as an erosional remnant resting 
on the Madera Limestone. In the Rio Grande graben, the Abo is also present, 
but is not separated from Yeso Formation on the geologic map (fig. 3). 

Yeso Formation (Py) 

The Yeso Formation, also of early Permian age, consists of two members. 
The lower unit, the Mesita Blanca Sandstone Member, is an evenly bedded, 
tan, brown and buff sandstone that is 90 to 150 feet thick. The upper San 
Ysidro Member is orange-red and pink sandstone with interbedded shale and 
some gray, caverneous limestone. Locally, discontinuous beds of gypsum or 
gypsiferous siltstone occur near the top of the unit. Thickness of the San 
Ysidro Member ranges from 250 to 400 feet. 

The Yeso crops out within the Rio Grande graben, locally along the 
hanging side of the Hubbell Springs fault (fig. 2 and 3). It is very likely 
that the Yeso, and probably the Abo Formation occur also in subsurface in the 
Manzano WSA, directly beneath Quaternary sediments. 

Apparently younger Permian age strata are not present within the 
Manzano GRA. 

Triassic 

In the GRA, Triassic rocks crop out only in one location, about five 
miles southwest of the Manzano WSA (see fig. 3). However, according to 
Kelley (1977), the Triassic is also widely present in the subsurface, within 
the Rio Grande graben (fig. 2). The younger Triassic Chinle Formation and 
Santa Rosa Sandstone crop out in the GRA. 



- 18 - 

The Santa Rosa Sandstone consists mainly of light gray to reddish 
brown lenticular sandstone and reddish brown shale. The sandstone is coarse 
grained and conglomeratic near the base, with pebbles of limestone and quartz 
occurring. The formation is 70 to 400 feet thick and is the lower part of a 
thick red-bed sequence that includes the overlying Chinle Formation (Titus, 
1980). 

The Chinle Formation consists of a thick section of reddish brown and 
tan-brown mudstone and thin beds of sandstone. 

Jurassic and Cretaceous 

Although Jurassic and Cretaceous strata also occur in the Rio Grande 
graben (Kelley, 1977, Titus, 1980), they do not crop out anywhere within 
the Manzano GRA. In the subsurface, the Jurassic is undifferentiated, and 
according to Kelley (1977), consists of Morrison, Entrada and Todilto For- 
mations, which are composed of sandstone, mudstone, gypsum and limestone. 

The Cretaceous strata are also undivided (see fig. 2), but consist of 
the Dakota, Mancos and Mesaverde Formations, including sandstone, shale and 
numerous coal lenses (Kelley, 1977, Titus, 1980). 

Neither Jurassic nor Cretaceous strata are present within or in close 
proximity of the Manzano WSA. 

Tertiary 

Tertiary rocks are widespread in the Rio Grande graben. They are 
particularly well exposed along the escarpments of the Rio Grande Valley and 
in the western part of the graben. Within the Manzano GRA the Tertiary Santa 
Fe Formation crops out along the eastern banks of the Rio Grande Valley and 
underlies the pediment gravels and eolian sands of Quaternary age (fig* 2 
and 3). 



- 19 - 



Santa Fe Formation (Ts - undivided and Tsc - Ceja Member) 
The Santa Fe Formation or Group (Titus, 1980) is Miocene to Pliocene 
in age. The Santa Fe Formation consists of loose or poorly cemented alluvial 
silt, sand, and gravel that was deposited in the Rio Grande graben as valley- 
fill. Caliche that developed under old buried land surfaces occurs at various 
depths. The lithology of the Santa Fe varies locally, but consists mainly of 
pinkish, light olive and white sandstone, gray and brown mudstone, arkosic 
sandstone, conglomerate and fanglomerate. The Ceja Member (Tsc) consists of 
grayish sand and pebbly conglomerate. The Santa Fe Formation is about 4000 to 
5000 feet thick in the area to the west of the Manzano WSA between the Hubbel 
Springs fault and the Belen fault (Kelley; 1977, see fig. 2). 

According to Kelley (1977), the Santa Fe Formation does not occur in 
the area east of the Hubbel Springs fault. This also means that the Santa 
Fe is not present near the Manzano WSA. 

Basaltic Flows 

Within the Manzano GRA, about five miles south of the WSA, occur small 
areas of basaltic flows and cinders composed principally of olivine basalt 
(Tb) and including volcanic fanglomerate (Ta) and tuff (fig. 3). However, 
their distribution within the Rio Grande graben is limited to a few occur- 
rences. In the vicinicy of Los Lunas, about 15 miles west of the WSA, 
andesitic flows (Ta) also occur. 

Quaternary 

The oldest of the post-Santa Fe Formation units is thin alluvial pediment 
gravel and sand of the Pleistocene Ortiz (Qo) pediment. It consists of 
fanglomerate ranging from large boulders to pebbles (Kelley, 1977) which 



- 20 - 



forms a relatively thin (up to 150 feet thick), but widespread blanket (fig. 
2 and 3). The Ortiz covers a large portion of the central part of the Manzano 
GRA. The eastern extension of the Ortiz is only about a mile west of the 
Manzano WSA. However, Kelley (1977) points out that determination of the 
extent of the Ortiz pediment is difficult because soil, caliche, and eolian 
deposits cover much of the area. Furthermore, the sands and gravels are 
generally thin and easily confused with the gravel of the Ceja Member of the 
Santa Fe Formation (Tsc). 

Within the Ortiz pediment, directly west and south of the Manzano WSA, 
occur gravel terraces (Qt; fig. 3). They are composed of subrounded to 
rounded pebbles of locally derived material. 

Eolian sands and sand dunes (Qe) cover much of the western part of 
the Manzano GRA (fig. 3). According to Kelley (1977) transverse form sand 
dunes are most common, but in blanket-like deposits, longitudinal streaks 
or low dunes prevail. Eolian sand blankets and dunes lie on the well devel- 
oped caliche cap of the Ortiz pediment surface and in places are piled in low 
hills behind the edge of the Ceja Mesa, reaching heights of 15 to 40 feet. 
Uncovered pediment to the east is lower than the hills in places. The dune 
field is fairly well stabilized, but low longitudinal ribs or streaks are 
still clearly visible (Kelley, 1977). 

The Manzano WSA is almost entirely underlain by very well developed 
alluvial fans (Qfa). The zone of alluvial fans occupies the foothills and 
lower western slopes of the Manzano Mountains (see fig. 3). According to 
Kelley (1977), many if not most alluvial fans have little or no abrupt change 
of slope, and may extend 10 to 15 miles or more with a nearly uniform slope. 
The fans along the Manzano base appear to represent a rather recent uplift 



- 21 - 



of the Manzano Mountains and/or subsidence of the basin surface. The alluvial 
fans probably rest directly on the Precambrian crystalline basement of the 
Manzano Mountains and Permian age strata. 

Most recent valleys of the Rio Grande and numerous arroyos in the 
Chupadera platform are filled with alluvial sediments. In the Rio Grande this 
includes floodplain sediments. Thickness of the recent fill is difficult to 
determine, although usually the lithology is clearly different than the 
underlying rocks. Alluvial sediment consists of unconsolidated silt, sand and 
gravels. 

Structural Geology 

The regional structural features of the Manzano WSA and GRA are shown 
on figure 1. The WSA is located at the western edge of the Manzano uplift and 
the eastern edge of the Rio Grande graben. The boundary between these two 
major structural units is the Manzano fault, a normal fault which runs through 
the WSA (Kelley, 1977; Cape et al., 1983). 

Characteristic of the Rio Grande rift are series of marginal faults with 
a thick sequence of sediments accumulated in the graben or basin (Cape and 
others, 1983). Internal structures of the rift and the bordering uplifts are 
complex. The structures on the east side of the graben are different in 
magnitude and style from those of the west side (Kelley, 1977). The struc- 
tural features clearly influence geomorphology (fig. 2 and 3). Kelley (1977) 
emphasizes that "The Rio Grande depression or rift does have within its basins 
horsts, buried ridges, troughs, embayments, short branches, constructed 
channels, benches, and protruding wedges as well as its marginal uplifts." 

The most important and directly relevant structure to this study is 
the above-mentioned Manzano fault. Its length is about 47 miles. Parallel 



- 22 - 



to this fault and about five miles westward is the Hubbell Springs fault (fig. 
2 and 3). On the uplifted eastern side of the Hubbell Springs fault there are 
flat-lying Permian Yeso and Abo rocks and Triassic strata and a thin veneer of 
pediment sediments, terraces and fan gravels (fig. 3). Displacement on the 
Hubbell Springs fault is about 4500 feet (fig. 2). Similar offset also occurs 
along the Rio Grande fault which borders the deepest part of the Rio Grande 
rift valley (fig. 2). 

Considerably different tectonic features can be observed in the eastern 
part of the Manzano GRA. Paleozoic rocks, which rest directly on the Pre- 
cambrian crystalline basement, dip gently eastward. However, along the 
eastern flanks of the Manzano Mountains a series of major faults occur 
marking the border between the Manzano uplift and the Chupadera platform. 

Paleontology 

Paleontological documentation is important for three major reasons: 

a. guide fossils which in the sedimentary sequence are most useful 
for stratigraphic correlation, 

b. outstanding fossil specimens or fossils which are extra- 
ordinarily well preserved can be beneficial to science and/or 
tourism, and 

c fossils can be excellent indicators of the paleogeographic and 
paleoecological environments; as a result, even moderately to 
poorly preserved "uninteresting" fossils can be geologically 
important . 

Plant fossils must also be considered important as organic material which 
can trigger the precipitation of uranium and/or other metals. 



- 23 - 



To the authors' knowledge, there are no fossil localities with any of 
the above-mentioned characteristics within the Manzano WSA. However, it is 
known that the Madera Limestone in particular and some carbonates of Permian 
age are biogenic and contain abundant marine fossils. Various species of 
pelecypods, brachiopods, corals, bryozoans, and foraminiferas are known to 
occur in the upper Paleozoic rocks . 

Geologic History and Paleogeographic Development 

The geologic history of the area is long and complex; only a brief 
synopsis is presented here. Excellent summaries of the main events that 
affected the Cordillera of New Mexico are given by Dickinson (1981) and 
Burchfiel (1979). More detailed accounts are given by Kelley (1977), for 
the Precambrian, Condie and Budding (1979), and for the Paleozoic, Kottlowski 
(1963). 

The area lies within a 1.2 to 1.65 b.y.B.P. ENE-trending belt within 
the North American craton, which is distinct from a 1.65 to 1.9 b.y.B.P. belt 
to the northwest. Rocks of the 1.2 to 1.65 b.y.B.P. belt which occurs in the 
GRA include metasedimentary and both mafic and felsic meta-igneous rocks that 
have been folded twice, metamorphosed and intruded by granites. 

The post-Precambrian geologic history can be summarized as follows: 

1. Some time prior to the mid-Paleozoic, central New Mexico 
was uplifted and eroded to a peneplain. At that time older 
Paleozoic strata, presumably deposited during early Paleozoic 
transgessions, were removed. 

2. A major transgression took place during the Mississippian and 
Pennsylvanian. At this time, the shallow marine clastic and 
carbonate sediments of the Sandia and Madera Formations were 
deposited. 



- 24 - 

3. During the late Pennsylvanian and early Permian, the Ouachita 
orogeny to the south caused the Pedernal and Burro-Zuni uplifts 
and a gradual regression took place in central New Mexico. The 
uplifts were the main sediment sources during the late Pennsyl- 
vanian and Permian. This regression began in Madera time and 
the Abo Formation, a continental red bed sequence, was deposited 
during the culmination of this event. 

4. A marine transgression followed with deposition of shallow 
marine-lagoonal Yeso Formation which contains evaporites and 
redbeds, and the mainly carbonate San Andres Formation, which 
occurs to the south of the Manzano GRA. 

5. During the Triassic, the area was uplifted, bevelled and 
deposition of the continental, Santa Rosa and Chinle For- 
mations took place. 

6. The area remained uplifted during the Jurassic and much of the 
Cretaceous and no sedimentation took place. During the Upper 
Cretaceous, shallow marine sedimentation was followed by 
deposition of terrestrial beds of the Mesaverde Formation. 

7. The Laramide orogeny caused only minor thrusting and folding in 
central New Mexico. This was followed by a period of erosion 
and bevelling of the surface. 

8. From latest Eocene and continuing to the present day a period of 
volcanism and tectonism has affected central New Mexico and can 
be divided into three phases: 

a. The first phase lasted from 40 to 30 m.y. During this 
time, the dip of the Benioff zone beneath the American 
plate decreased to less than 15° and calc-alkaline , 



- 25 - 

mainly andesitic and quartz latitic, volcanism took 

place. Voluminous quartz latitic ash flow deposits 

were erupted from cauldrons and small epizonal monzonite 

plutons were intruded, 
b. The second phase lasted from 30 to 20 m.y. At this 

time, the Pacific plate collided with North America, the 
San Andreas fault was initiated and a modified back arc 
stage of volcanism took place as a result of the still- 
active Farallon plate beneath the southern Cordillera. 
Volcanism took on a bimodal character with calc-alkaline 
to high potassium calc-alkaline basaltic andesite and 
high-silica rhyolite being the dominant phases erupted. 
Extensive ash flow deposits of high silica rhyolite 
were erupted from cauldrons and epizonal plutons of 

quartz monzonite and granite were intruded, 
c From 20 m.y. to the present, interplate normal faulting 

and bimodal volcanism has taken place and is probably 

associated with cessation of subduction and the growth 

of the San Andreas transform. During this time, the Rio 

Grande rift developed and was filled with valley-fill 

sediment. 
9. Igneous activity and deformation have continued to the present 

day as evidenced by the presence of magma chambers beneath the 

Rio Grande Valley southwest and west of the Monzano GRA. 

ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES 

Locations of known mineral occurrences and mining exploration sites in 
the Manzano GRA are plotted on figure 3. The information presented on the map 
and summarized in the following descriptions was derived was derived from the 



- 26 - 



U.S. Geological Survey (1981a, 1981b), Haigler and Southerland (1965) Fulp 
and Woodward (1981), LaPoint (1979), Woodward et al. (1978) and Kelley and 
Northrop (1965). 

It should be noted that in the Manzano GRA there is a relatively small 
number of mineral occurrences and none are located within or near the WSA. 
Base and precious metal mineralization is confined to the north-central part 
of the GRA and mainly to the shear system in the metamorphic rocks of Pre- 
cambrian age. Uranium-bearing occurrences are located in the south-central 
part of the Manzano GRA and, with one exception, occur in the Pennsylvanian 
and Permian (Abo Formation) strata. In this GRA, eighteen oil wells have been 
drilled. All were dry, but one (located about 15 miles to the east of the 
Manzano WSA) hit a large pocket of CO2 and this well is still in operation. 



Known Mineral Deposits, Mines, Oil Wells, 
or Prospects with Recorded Production 

12. Mary M Mines 

Location: Sec. 16, T8N, R5E 

Commodities: Ag, Cu, Au 

Deposit Description: Consists of small pits and adits in sheared 

greenstone with abundant quartz veinlets. 

Mineralization consists of malachite, chal- 

copyrite, pyrite, magnetite and gold. 
Production: Small shipments of ore have been reported. 

References: Haigler and Southerland, 1965; Kelley and 

Northrop, 1975. 

13. Milagros Mine and Star Shaft 
Location: Sec. 21, T8N, R5E 
Commodities: Ag, Cu, Au 

Deposit Description: Consists of copper carbonates, iron oxides, 

minor native copper, gold and silver. 

Production: Over $300,000 of gold and silver. 

References: Haigler and Southerland, 1965; Woodward and 

others, 1978. 

17. Carbon Dioxide Well 

Location: Sec. 32, T7N, R7E 

Commodity: CO 2 

Production: Yes. 

References: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 



- 27 - 



42, 



York Mine 
Location: 

Commodities: 
Deposit Description: 



45, 



Production: 
Reference: 

Copper Girl Mine 

Location: 

Commodity: 

Deposit Description: 



Sec 9, 16, T8N, R5E 

(location very approximate) 

Cu, Pb, Zn 

Small, stratiform copper-lead-zinc body 

occurring in a cherty iron-marble lens. Host 

rocks are tuffaceous metasediments within a 

terrane dominated by greenstone and mafic 

metasediments . 

Yes. 

Fulp and Woodward, 1981. 



Sec. 28, TAN, R5E 
Cu 

An organic-rich, chalcocite-bearing gray 
shale lies on a curved, shallow depression 
formed on top of a brown medium-grained 
sandstone. The sandstone is light brown 
below the gray shale, but laterally it grades 
abruptly into red sandstone, and here it is 
overlain by red mudstones that probably 
represent oxidized overbank muds. Chalcocite 
occurs in nodules and as a replacement of 
partially compressed organic debris. The 
mine consists of a small adit, 6' high, 6' 
wide, now partially blocked by caving. Adit 
is driven eastward in a light gray sandy 
mudstone of the Abo Formation; it is at least 
12-15' long, untimbered, and shows evidence 
of some roof falls about 10' back. A thin 
bed of coarse grained conglomeratic arkosic 
channel sandstone crops out just below the 
adit entrance. This sand unit contains an 
appreciable amount of copper locally, with 
malachite and azurite present at this site, 
and also produces the highest scintillometer 
response of any rock type on the dump or at 
the outcrop; readings of up to 225 cps were 
recorded. Readings of just over 150 cps were 
recorded at the portal. No uranium mineral- 
ization is visible. 

Another small adit was started 50' south of 
the main adit, but no underground workings 
exist at present. Several rounds were 
apparently set off and the stub adit was 
completely caved. Scintillometer response 
here was weak, less than 2x background. 

The small dump from the main adit is about 
40' wide (N-S) and extends westward down 
slope for approximately 50' at the angle of 
repose. It is visible because of its light 
gray color contrasting with the generally 
reddish brown outcrops. 



- 28 - 



49, 



Production: 
Reference: 

Long Shale Cut 

Location: 

Commodity: 

Deposit Description: 



50, 



Production: 
Reference: 

Cole Mine 

Location: 

Commodity: 

Deposit Description: 



Production: 
Reference: 



The mine is in a red bed copper deposit; the 
uranium mineralization is below ore grade. 
However, Lovering, 1956, stated that high 
grade uranium deposits occur in the Scholle 
district in T2N, R5E about 3 miles north of 
Scholle in Torrance County. 

The Meader Corporation had the Copper Girl 

registered with the state Mine Inspector's 

Office in 1956. Uranium ore production, if 

any, is unknown (direct quote from LaPoint, 

1979). 

Yes. 

LaPoint, 1979. 



Sec. 10, T3N, R5E 
Cu 

A brown, poorly exposed sandstone is overlain 
by green and purple shales containing abundant 
limestone nodules. Lenses of reddish limestone 
pebble conglomerates and sandstones with trough 
cross-stratification surround and overlie 
this sequence. Chalcocite, as small nodules 
and as replacement of woody material, is found 
in calcareous, organic siltstone, which forms 
a small lens about 50 feet long and three 
feet thick, within the shales. The presence 
of fine-grained calcareous, non-red sediments 
with limestone nodules is suggestive of sedi- 
ments deposited in a small lake between fluvial 
channels (direct quote from LaPoint, 1979). 
Yes. 
LaPoint, 1979. 

Sec. 15, T3N, R5E 
Cu 

Workings occur on the bench that separates the 
lower and upper Abo Formation. A cut has 
exposed two fluvial channels; the bedding in 
the lower channel dips to the north. Both 
channels consist of dense gray sandstone with 
limestone pebbles that increase in abundance 
toward the base. The upper part of the upper 
channel contains woody debris that commonly 
is replaced by chalcocite. The sandstone are 
overlain by a gray, thinly bedded, calcareous 
siltstone. Red mudstones overlie this sequence. 
The conglomerate of the upper channel contains 
numerous small areas of slightly anomalous 
radioactivity readings of two to three times 
background, but no uranium minerals were 
noted. Copper minerlaization is also spotty 
(direct quote from LaPoint, 1979). 
Yes. 
LaPoint, 1979. 



Known Mineral Prospects, Occurrences, Oil and Gas 
Wells with No Recorded Production 

1. Unnamed Mineral Pigments Occurrence 
Location: Sec 24, T9N, R4E 
Commodity: Mineral pigments 
Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

2. Unnamed Mineral Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 31, T9N, R5E 

Commodity: Unknown 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

3. Unnamed Fluorite Occurrence 
Location: Sec 20, T9N, R5E 
Commodity: F 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

4. Unnamed Mineral Occurrence 
Location: Sec 4, T8N, R5E 
Commodity: Unknown 
Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

5. Unnamed Mineral Occurrence 
Location: Sec. 5, T8N, R5E 
Commodity: Unknown 
Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

6. Unnamed Mineral Occurrence 
Location: Sec. 6, T8N, R5E 
Commodity: Unknown 
Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

7. Unnamed Mineral Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 6, 7, T8N, R5E 

Commod i t y : Unknown 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

8. Unnamed Mineral Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 16, T8N, R5E 

Commodity: Unknown 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 



- 29 - 



- 30 - 



9. Unnamed Fluorite Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 8, T8N, R5E 

Commodity: F 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 



10. Unnamed Lead Occurrence 



11. 



14. 



15. 



16, 



18, 



19, 



20. 



Location: 
Commodity: 
Production: 
Reference: 



Sec. 9, T8N, R5E 

Pb 

Unknown . 

Haigler and Southerland, 1965, 



Unnamed Barite Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 9, T8N, R5E 

Commodity: Ba 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965, 

Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 28, T4N, R5E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 28, T4N, R5E 

Commodity: Cu 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965. 

Unnamed Uranium and Vanadium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 15, T3N, R5E 

Commodity: U, V 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: Haigler and Southerland, 1965, 

Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 8, T8N, R3E 

Depth: 10,378 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 25, T7N, R2E 

Depth: 1,956 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 9, T6N, R3E 

Depth: 446 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 



- 31 - 



21. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec 29, T6N, R3E 

Depth: 1,150 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

22. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec 29, T6N, R3E 

Depth: 507 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

23. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 35, T6N, R3E 

Depth: 1,115 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

24. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 18, T5N, R3E 

Depth: 6,800 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

25. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 32, T6N, R4E 

Depth: 500 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

26. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 2, T5N, R4E 

Depth: 890 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

27. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 3, T5N, R4E 

Depth: 641 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

28. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 3, T5N, R4E 

Depth: 823 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 



- 32 - 



29. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 23, T6N, R5E 

Depth: 1,955 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

30. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 32, T7N, R7E 

Depth: 2,200 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

31. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 12, T6N, R6E 

Depth: 1,343 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

32. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 36, T5N, R6E 

Depth: 2,147 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

33. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 18, T4N, R7E 

Depth: 2,008 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

34. Dry Oil and Gas Test Well 

Location: Sec. 32, T4N, R7E 

Depth: 3,104 feet 

Commodity: Oil and gas 

Production: None. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

35. Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 10, 11, T3N, R5E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

36. Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 23, 25, T5N, R4E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 



- 33 - 



37. Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec 13, 14, T3N, R5E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981. 

38. Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 23, T3N, R5E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

39. Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 14, 15, T4N, R5E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

40. Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 29, T4N, R4E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

41. Unnamed Uranium Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 27, 34, T4N, R5E 

Commodity: U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 1981, 

43. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 21, T4N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

44. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 20, 29, T4N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

46. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 10, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

47. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 10, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 



- 34 - 



48. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 10, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

51. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 10, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

52. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 16, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

53. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 15, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

54. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 22, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

55. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 21, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

56. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 21, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 

57. Unnamed Copper Occurrence 

Location: Sec. 21, T3N, R5E 

Commodities: Cu, U 

Production: Unknown. 

Reference: LaPoint, 1979. 



Mining Claims, Leases and Material Sites 

Mining claims recorded by the BLM and reported as of April, 1982, were 
thoroughly checked. However, neither patented nor unpatented claims have been 
found within or in close vicinity of the Manzano WSA. 

Mineral Deposit Types 

Geological environments to be considered as potentially favorable for 
the occurence of mineral or energy resources in the Manzano GRA include (see 
fig. 5): 

Precambrian metamorphic rocks, 

- Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, specifically Permian red beds, 

- Cretaceous coal measures, 

- Late Tertiary valley-fill sediments. 

Precambrian Metamorphic Rocks 

Ore deposit types that may have been formed in direct association with 
volcanic activity during the Precambrian include: 

a. Volcanogenic polymetallic massive sulfide deposits, 

b. Greenstone exhalative gold deposits, commonly with copper 
mineralization 

c. Iron-bearing deposits, and 

d. Hydrothermal deposits associated with Precambrian intrusives or 
metamorphism. 

Numerous occurrences of massive sulfide deposits are found in older 
Precambrian rocks in Arizona. In New Mexico, volcanogenic zinc-lead- 
copper deposits that often contain economic values of precious metals, 



- 35 - 



Figure 5. GEOLOGICAL ENVIROMENTS OF THE MANZANO AREA 
AND ASSOCIATED POTENTIAL MINERAL DEPOSIT TYPES 



\ MINERAL 
\ DEPOSIT 
\ TYPE 

GEOLOGICAL \ 
ENVIROMENT - \ 
HOST ROCKS \ 


Volcanogenic Massive 
Sulfide Deposits 


Hydrothermal Deposits 
(including replacement 
deposits; 


CD 

CO 

CO 
-Q 

k_ 
O 

XJ 

c 

CO 

^2 

00 

+-• CO 

mE 


CO 

'35 

o. 

CD 
O 

CD 

a 
> 

e 

CD 
CD 

1 
-O 

CD 

* 


CO 

CD 

a 
> 

"ca 

CO 

■*— 

'35 


a 

CD 

a 

E 

3 
'E 

CO 

>». 
D 


CO 

*■» 
'co 

a 

CD 

O 

"ca 

O 


CO 

•*- 

'35 


a 

CD 

O 

c 


.Q 
k. 

CO 
O 
O 

w 

■0 
>» 

X 


Mid- and Late Tertiary 
Basin-Fill Sediments 










X 






Cretaceous Sediments 




X 








X 




Paleozoic Sediments 






X 


X 






X 


Precambrian Igneous 
and Metamorpnic Rocks 


X 


X 













- 37 - 



are of great exploration interest (Fulp and Woodward, 1981). They are 
associated with banded iron formations which are zoned, with sulfide facies 
near the rhyolitic center and carbonate and oxide facies further away. 
Metavolcanic rocks occur in the northern part of the Manzano GRA in the 
Tijeras-Hell Canyon, approximately seven miles from the northern end of the 
WSA (fig. 3). There are three abandoned mines (York #42; Mary M, #12; 
and Milagros mine and shaft #13) in that area, of which the York mine is 
associated with volcanogenic rock and contains polymetallic sulfide mineral- 
ization. According to Fulp and Woodward (1981) the York deposit is a small 
stratiform copper-lead-zinc body occurring in cherty-iron-marble lens. Host 
rocks are tuffaceous metasediments , with greenstone and mafic metasediments 
occurring nearby. Numerous copper occurrences are reported in the greenstone 
between Tijeras Canyon and Hell Canyon (Reiche, 1949). 

The Mary M and Milagros mines are deposits of exhalative gold, with 
copper greenstone (Fulp and Woodward, 1981). The Mary M deposit consists of a 
few small pits and adits in sheared greenstone with abundant quartz veinlets. 
Mineralization consists of malachite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, mgnetite, and 
gold. In the Milagros mine and adjacent Star shaft, mineralization that 
occurs in sintery quartz veins and metachert in sheared greenstone and meta- 
sediments. The deposit occurs within the zone of oxidation and consists of 
copper carbonates, iron oxides, minor native copper, gold and silver. 

Paleozoic and Mesozoic Sediments 

Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments are potential host rocks for accumu- 
lation of hydrocarbons and possible "red-bed" type copper and silver deposits. 

Particularly in eastern New Mexico, oil and gas have long been produced 
from the Paleozoic rocks, with most of the oil production coming from Pennsyl- 
vanian and Permian strata. In the Manzano GRA, similar rocks occur on both 



- 38 - 



sides of the Manzano Mountains. Oil and gas potential in these areas has 
been recognized and numerous exploratory wells have been drilled. However, 
no commercial oil or gas has been found. Also, it is very unlikely that 
any oil or gas can be found within or in close proximity to the Manzano 
WSA due to intense faulting in the area. 

Red bed copper and silver mineralization occurs within the southern part 
of the GRA in the Scholle district (LaPoint, 1979). The host rocks are 
sediments of the Abo Formation. In the Scholle district there are numerous 
copper-bearing occurrences and mine prospects. They have been studied and 
described by Phillips (1960) and LaPoint (1976, 1979). 

The locations of the prospects are shown in figure 3 and their geological 
characteristics are summarized (after LaPoint, 1979) in the section on "known 
mineral deposits, prospects and/or occurrences". 

According to LaPoint, copper mineralization with anomalous amounts of 
uranium (two to three times above the background) occurs throughout the 
district. Mineralization is confined mainly to the lower part of the Abo 
Formation, and numerous small deposits may be found within a stratigraphic 
range from 40 to 100 feet. Mineralization occurs in the areas where reducing 
conditions have prevailed and the host sediments are fluvial channels in the 
lower, more arkosic, portion of the Abo. This apparent stratigraphic control 
of the copper mineralization suggests that during their formation, sandstone 
channels provided a pathway for carrying copper-bearing ground water from 
sediments that were oxidizing into sediments that were organic-rich and 
reducing. Mineralization occurs mainly in finer grained sediments that were 
deposited in ponds rich in organic matter. In coarser grained sediments, such 
as channels, mineralization is more spotty and is present only where there is 
an adequate reductant. 



- 39 - 



In the Scholle district, numerous uranium-bearing prospects and highly 
radioactive spots (2 to 3 times above the background) also occur. However, 
according to Pierson and others (1982), the results of the ground water 
sampling show the presence of strong anomalies along the outcrops, but only 
a few anomalies downdip where the Abo Formation is covered by younger sedi- 
mentary rocks . 

Cretaceous Coal Measures 

Although Cretaceous strata do not crop out within the Manzano GRA or 
in the Rio Grande graben, they are present in the subsurface and do contain 
coal-bearing seams. Coal occurs in the Mesaverde Formation (Kelley, 1977), 
which within the GRA, occurs only in the deepest part of the Rio Grande graben 
(fig. 2). 

Late Tertiary Valley-Fill Sediments 

Valley-fill sediments mainly of the Santa Fe Formation underlie the Rio 
Grande Valley but do not crop out in the Manzano WSA. Late Tertiary valley- 
fill sediments represent a potentially favorable environment for the occur- 
rence of stratabound uranium deposits. 

In order to form a uranium deposit by the agency of circulating ground- 
water it is necessary to have adequate source rocks, permeable sediments and a 
suitable reductant. The Santa Fe Formation contains clasts of rhyolitic Datil 
Volcanics and coeval rhyolitic ash. Both are probably suitable sources of 
uranium; Miesch (1956) reports that Datil rhyolites contain between 10 to 50 
ppm eU. The Santa Fe Formation contains abundant sandstone and gravel and is 
doubtlessly sufficiently permeable. It is not certain, however, if adequate 
reductants are present to cause precipitation of uranium. Suitable reductants 
include organic matter in the sediments or reducing geothermal fluids. 



- 40 - 



Reducing geothermal fluids are possible reductants in light of present-day and 
past geothermal activity in the Rio Grande rift (Chapin et al., 1978). 

Mineral Economics 

The assessment of the geological, energy and mineral resources favor- 
ability should rely upon not only geology. Exploration, recovery, cost 
of the production of the resource from sources with varying qualities and/or 
concentrations are included in those considerations. Special consideration 
must be given to the strategic and critical minerals and metals. However, in 
the Manzano GRA the only known mineral occurrences or exploration areas 
for oil and gas deposits are located in considerable distance from the WSA. 
Moreover, the geological conditions favorable for mineral and/or energy 
deposits in various parts of the GRA do not appear to be present in the 
Manzano WSA. 

THE GEOLOGY, ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES 
OF THE MANZANO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA 

In this section the Manzano WSA is discussed with respect to its physio- 
graphy, geology, mineral occurrences, resource potential and recommendations 
for further work. Much of this information has been presented in other sec- 
tions of this report and is summarized in this section. The classification 
of resource potential and level of confidence is in accordance to the schemes 
provided by the Bureau of Land Management (attachment 9, dated March 24, 1982) 
as detailed below. 

Classification Scheme 

1. The geologic environment and the inferred geologic processes do 
not indicate favorability for accumulation of mineral resources. 



- 41 - 

2. The geologic environment and the inferred geologic processes 
indicate low favorability for accumulation of mineral resources. 

3. The geologic environment, the inferred geologic processes, and 
the reported mineral occurrences indicate moderate favorability 
for accumulation of mineral resources. 

A. The geologic environment, the inferred geologic processes, 
the reported mineral occurrences, and the known mines or 
deposits indicate high favorability for accumulation of mineral 
resources. 

Level of Confidence Scheme 

A. The available data are either insufficient and/or cannot be 
considered as direct evidence to support or refute the possible 
existence of mineral resources within the respective area. 

B. The available data provide indirect evidence to support or 
refute the possible existence of mineral resources. 

C. The available data provide direct evidence, but are quanti- 
tatively minimal to support to refute the possible existence of 
mineral resources. 

D. The available data provide abundant direct and indirect 
evidence to support or refute the possible existence of mineral 
resources. 

Manzano Wilderness Study Area (010-092) 

Physiography 

The Manzano WSA lies at the foothills and on the western slopes of the 
central part of the Manzano Mountains. Slopes in the WSA are steep and a 
relief is approximately 1200 feet within the WSA's width of one-half mile. 



- 42 - 



Geology 

Precambrian granites of the Ojita pluton (Condie and Budding, 1979) 
and Quaternary fan deposits crop out in the Manzano WSA. The granitic rocks 
of the pluton vary in color from gray to tan and generally are medium grained. 
According to Condie and Budding (1979) the northern and southern contacts of 
the Ojita pluton are well exposed and range from concordant to discordant to 
the surrounding metamorphic rocks. With the exception of silicification, 
contact effects of the pluton on the surrounding rocks are minimal. 

The Manzano fault runs through the WSA. The eastern side of the seem- 
ingly normal fault is uplifted. As a result, Pennsylvanian and Permian strata 
are in fault contact with Precambrian granite. There is no evidence of any 
mineralization associated with the fault or fault zone. 

Directly atop Permian rocks rest alluvial fans, which are widely spread 
along the western slope and foothills of the Manzano Mountains (Kelley, 1977). 
The alluvial fans are generally thin, locally up to 50 feet thick. The 
alluvial fans are composed mainly of granitic blocks and poorly sorted 
clastic material. 

Mineral Deposits 

There are no mineral or energy deposits or occurrences within the Manzano 
WSA. The nearest deposits and occurrences are more than six miles from the 
WSA boundaries. The geology of the area is well known; the area has been 
prospected but no mineral occurrences have been reported. Precambrian 
granites of central New Mexico contain few mineral deposits and those that are 
known to the authors are post-Precambrian in age. No mineralization is known 
to occur in alluvial fans of central New Mexico. 



- 43 - 



Land Classification for GEM Resources Potential 

The entire WSA is considered to have extremely low potential for mineral 
and energy resources at a confidence level of C. The greatest potential is 
for use of Precambrian granite as building stone or crushable rock, however, 
similar rocks crop out in numerous areas with easier access and more gentle 
slopes. 

Conclusions and Recommendations 
It is very unlikely that mineral and/or energy resources occur in the 
Manzano WSA. No further geologic work is recommended for the WSA. 



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- 44 - 



- 45 - 



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